About JICOSSH 2019
After Cold War, identity becomes a discourse that is often discussed by global society. Even since that time we seem to live in a world where identity becomes something important, both conceptually, theoretically, until it becomes a fact contested in contemporary political life (Gilroy, 1997: 301). The result is that various problems in the world today are also determined by identity cases. In the 1990s, the Balkan War and the Rwandan Conflict became a concrete form of identity issues. Samuel Huntington’s thesis (1993; 1996) “The Clash of Civilizations” also raised the issue of identity in the academic realm and became a widespread conversation, especially when the events of 9/11 occurred in the United States (US).
The ongoing globalization also contributes to massive migration. For example, in the economic sector, many people move to a country that is considered capable of increasing welfare. While in the political sector, many people have fled from prolonged conflicts to countries that are considered capable of providing protection and security. But the problem that then arises is when migrants are considered as foreigners or “the other” by the natives. This then triggers nativism and chauvinism, as seen in populist political platforms in Europe (Müller, 2016; Kudors & Pabriks, 2017). Openly, the group stated itself as anti-European Union (EU) and anti-immigrant (Sandelind, 2014; Martinelli, 2016).
In addition to immigration cases, Europe also faces other issues of identity, namely separatism that occurs in several countries. Strengthening identity at the ethnic level creates political upheaval which results in demands for independence from the parent country. Many reasons behind this separatist movement, such as: economy, politics, and culture. Two examples of interesting cases occur in Scotland in 2014 and Catalan in 2017. The two autonomous regions held a referendum to free themselves from their countries, Great Britain and Spain. However, the referendum ended not as expected. The majority of Scottish people still want to join the United Kingdom, while the Spanish Government annulls the results of the Catalan referendum because it considers it illegal and not in accordance with the constitution. What happened in Scotland and Catalan is just an example of the problem of identity that has been rolling as a real action. The efforts of separatism are actually also taking place in several other places in Europe, but have not yet arrived at the real demand for independence. Some of these areas, including: Brittany in France; Basque in Spain; Wallonia and Flanders in Belgium; South Tyrol, Lombardy and Veneto in Italy, to Bavaria in Germany. Of course this identity problem must be able to be overcome immediately in order to avoid potential conflicts that can arise in the future.
The phenomenon that occurred in Europe also take place in Asia. Identity is a problem that draws some attention. The issue of religious identity can be seen from the Syrian conflict which has brought about the Sunni-Syi’ah issue or the Moro conflict in the Philippines between Muslim-Christian groups. While ethnic identity appears in Kurdish efforts to form a Kurdistan state consisting of parts of Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Syria. In addition, there are also Rohingya crises and Balochistan’s efforts to secede from Pakistan. While the election of Shinzo Abe as Prime Minister (PM) of Japan for the second time in 2012, Narendra Modi’s victory in India in 2014, and Rodrigo Duterte in 2016 are considered as a symbol of the rise of populist nationalism in Asia. Not surprisingly, Cas Mudde (2018) states that populism has been transformed as a concept that defines the age we live in today.
Looking at the various phenomenon above, identity will play a significant role in the future. The increasingly rapid flow of information has increased awareness of ethnic and religious identity. At the local level, the failure of the state to meet public expectations of justice and prosperity also provoked the desire of certain groups to move and pursue demands, both to pursue autonomy and independence as a whole. While at the global level, awareness of nationalism actually makes the country increasingly strengthen its defenses, tighten its borders, and protect its economy in order to create a sense of security for its citizens.
Then how should we look at the impact of globalization on identity where all the parties that involve do not on the same page? Giorgio Shani (2011) states that there are at least four impacts. First, the globalist group states that the role of the nation-state is increasingly eroded by the emergence of Global Civil Society which emphasizes individual rights. Second, skeptics consider that nation-states are still the main subject in determining the identity politics of their citizens. Third, Huntington assumes that the identity of the nation-state will be replaced by a civilian identity that is more general and complex. Fourth, proponents of transformationalism argue that globalization will create a hybridity or mix of diverse identities
The impact above is a sign that the issue of identity must be resolved immediately. The differences are feared to present a potential conflict. At least by building a shared awareness of the meaning of identity itself in a world that is constantly changing. The discussion of identity becomes more crucial than before considering the stages of human history have arrived in the VUCA era (Volatile, Uncertain, Complex and Ambiguous) where there is no clarity or certainty about the current and future situations or conditions. In the political context, the question that arises is, “Is the international system still unipolar with the US as a hegemon?” If so, then how do we interpret the role of the European Union, Russia, and China in the international political map? Regarding technology, many experts consider that we are entering the Industrial Revolution 4.0 era which prioritizes automation (smart factory) and data exchange using cyber system devices in which there is the Internet of Things (Rojko, 2017; Xi, David, & Kim, 2018). Meanwhile, the achievement of technology 4.0 has ushered people in a disruptive era that was previously unimaginable because it quickly changed the economic and business outlook. There are at least four things that are affected by the existence of disruption. First, the more massive development of artificial intelligence (AI) helped change the value chain for creativity-based content. Second, increasingly deep technological developments change creative experiences. Third, the creation of convergence between the economic platform and creativity. Fourth, there is a balance of interests between the public and private sectors through ongoing dialogue and collaboration (WEF, 2018). The above impacts for Klaus Schwab (2018) have brought people to the era of globalization 4.0.
So what should we do to deal with this situation? On the one hand there is a local identity which, for some parties, remains the foundation for carrying out life activities. But on the other hand, the globalization of global 4.0 has brought humanity to a new situation that is rapidly changing, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous. The four forms of this situation also make information and communication flows faster, but also difficult to control. As a result, hoaxes or hoaxes are more easily circulated to be trusted by someone without having to check the truth again. Trust is basically a justification for the identity that is owned and believed. Thus identity becomes a relative thing, but also rigid at the same time. From here, post truth society then develops and shifts the meaning of truth.
Based on the explanation above, we, the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences (FISIP) of the National Development University “Veteran” Jakarta (UPNVJ) intend to hold an international conference. The aim is to discuss existing problems while capturing ideas and thoughts from experts to produce alternative solutions. As a State Defense College, UPNVJ has a moral responsibility to maintain a local identity in order to produce citizens who have a strong commitment to progress as well as the survival of their nation. But, on the other hand, as an academic institution, the UPNVJ is also aware of changes in the world that also influence and shape contemporary global identity. Therefore each individual must also realize that at this time they have become citizens of the world. Thus the UPNVJ seeks that the discourse of attraction or intersection between local and global identities does not lead to conflict between humans, but is always directed towards world peace.